How is Water Borne diseases caused?.

Realistic rendering of bacteria - in red colors

These diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are commonly spread in contaminated fresh water.

The microbes are derived usage of water for cleaning, washing, human and animal wastes, natural pollutants etc.

Because of this polluted water various forms of waterborne diarrheal diseases occur.

Most common water-borne diseases are: Typhoid fever, malaria, dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, hepatitis, etc.


Water body contaminated with sewage or waste water is most likely to possess pathogenic microbes fatal to humans when consumed and these microbes may be bacteria, virus or protozoa. E. coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter and Shigella (are some of the bacterial pathogens in water), Enterovirus, Noravirus, rota virus (are some of the viral pathogens), Entamoeba, Giardia lamblia are examples of possible parasitic pathogens in the water.

There are many water borne pathogenic diseases identified like amoebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, SARS, hepatitis A, botulism, cholera, dysentery, E.coli infection, typhoid etc. posing potential health risk and many analytical methods has been derived to detect the presence of such pathogens in the drinking water.

Here are several ways to prevent water-borne diseases:

  • Drink only filtered/boiled water.
  • Store water in a clean container,
  • Water jars/containers should be washed daily.
  • Consume warm and home cooked foods while avoiding street foods.
  • Always store foods/beverages covered.
  • Make sure that the pipes and tanks that supply water to your house are properly maintained and clean.
  • Travelers should only drink bottled water.
  • People suffering from water-borne diseases should not go to work until fully recovered to avoid spreading.

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